Last in this series but certainly not the least, is hyperpigmentation.
Types and causes of hyperpigmentation
Hyperpigmentation exists as age/sun/liver spots, melasma or freckles. They result from excess melanin production due to sun exposure or hormonal changes (i.e. contraception or pregnancy).
We won't be covering post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (from scarring), but you can read about it here.
Daily routine focus
The following actives reduce hyperpigmentation by inhibiting melanin production or transfer. They work best in combination. Vitamins C and E also serve as protective antioxidants.
- hydroquinione, arbutin - not recommended prolonged use
- kojic acid, phytic acid, azelaic acid
- vitamin C and derivatives
- vitamin E and derivatives
- vitamin A and derivatives
- niacinamide (vitamin B3)
- AHAs - glycolic acid, lactic acid
Limiting UV exposure is essential in preventing/fading hyperpigmentation, as UV stimulates melanin production. Ensure you're protected against both UVA and UVB.
If the excess melanin sits deep in the dermis layer (e.g. melasma), more intensive treatments are required for its complete removal. Your dermatologist's supervision is necessary for results and safety.
- Ablative and non-ablative lasers
- Deep chemical peels
And that's a wrap! I hope you've picked up something useful in this series to help you reach your skin goal this year, whatever it may be. For more skin tips and chats, join us on instagram and facebook!